Conditional Expression

Note: EXPR && echo true - on returningtrue expression is true, otherwise false.

String

Expression Description
[ "$VAR" ] String not empty
[ -z "$VAR" ] or [ ! "$VAR" ] String is empty
[ "$VAR1" = "$VAR2" ] Equal string - case-sensitive
[ "${VAR1,,}" = "${VAR2,,}" ] Equal string - case-insensitive
[ "$VAR1" != "$VAR2" ] Not equal string
[[ "$VAR" =~ "REGEX" ]] String matches REGEX

File

Expression Description
[ -e "$VAR" ] File/directory exists
[ -d "$VAR" ] Directory exists
[ -f "$VAR" ] Regular file exists
[ -s "$VAR" ] Regular file exists and not empty
[ -r "$VAR" ] Regular file exists with read permission
[ -w "$VAR" ] Regular file exists with write permission
[ -x "$VAR" ] Regular file exists with exec permission

Elvis Operator (Ternary)

[REF]

Expression Description
$(( $ORG == 1 ? ${VAL1} : ${VAL2} )) inline expression & variable assignment
$( [ $ORG == "1" ] && echo ${VAL1} || echo ${VAL2} ) inline expression & variable assignment
[ $ORG == "1" ] && VAR="1" || VAR="2" only variable assignment
${VAR:-DEFAULT} if VAR is unset or null, DEFAULT is returned
${VAR:=DEFAULT} if VAR is unset or null, DEFAULT is returned and set to VAR itself

String Operation

Shell Parameter Expansion

Expression Description
${VAR:-DEFAULT} If VAR is unset or null, DEFAULT is returned
${VAR:=DEFAULT} If VAR is unset or null, DEFAULT is returned and set to VAR itself
${VAR:IDX[:LEN]} VAR.substr(IDX [,LEN])
${VAR,,} VAR.toLowercase
${VAR^^} VAR.toUppercase
${VAR/PAT/STR} VAR.replaceFirst(PAT, STR)
${VAR//PAT/STR} VAR.replaceAll(PAT, STR)
${!VAR} consider it as ${${VAR}}

Split by Delimiter

  1. Set IFS variable to delimiter
  2. read -ra ARRAY <<< STRING
    • -r - Backslash does not act as an escape character
    • -a ARRAY - The words, separated by IFS, are assigned to the sequential index of array ARRAY beginning at zero.
  3. Access
    • By Index - ${ARRAY[0]}, and so on
    • Iteration - for i in "${ARRAY[@]}"; do ...
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
if [[ "${SCHEMA}" =~ "|" ]]; then
    IFS="|"
    read -ra PARTS <<< "${SCHEMA}"
    SCHEMA_PARAM="schemas=${PARTS[0]} remap_schema=${PARTS[1]}"
else
    SCHEMA_PARAM="schemas=${SCHEMA}"
    if [[ "${SCHEMA}" =~ ":" ]]; then
        SCHEMA_PARAM="remap_schema=${SCHEMA}"
    fi
fi

Loop

for

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
## Iterate over CMD output using $() 
for i in $(seq 1 1 10); do
  echo "i = $i"
done

## Iterate on words: 'Hi!', 'Visit', 'https://devocative.org', and '!'
STR="Hi! Visit https://devocative.org !"
for w in ${STR}; do
  echo "w = $w"
done

## Iterate over lines
LINES=$(cat << 'EOF'   # EOF must be enclosed in single quote
export LS_OPTIONS='--color=auto'
eval "`dircolors`"
alias ll='ls $LS_OPTIONS -l'
EOF
) # closed parenthesis must be in the next line

IFS=$'\n'
for l in ${LINES}; do
  echo "LINE = $l"
done

## Iterate over files
for f in /usr/lib*; do
  echo "f = $f"
done

## Iterate over input parameters
for var in "${@}"; do
  EXP="${var//[\/:]/_}.tar"
  echo "Exporting: ${var} to ${EXP}"
  docker save ${var} -o ${EXP}
done

Function

  • Good [Ref]
  • Note: function keyword not valid for POSIX sh. For bash is also optional.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
# check required param
function rq() {
    VAR="$1"
    MSG="$2"
    
    if [ -z "$VAR" ]; then
        echo "ERROR: ${MSG}"
        exit 1
    fi
}

function func1() {
    rq "$1" "func1 *[PARAM1] *PARAM2 PARAM3"
    rq "$2" "func1 *PARAM1 *[PARAM2] PARAM3"
    
    PARAM1="$1"
    PARAM2="$2"
    PARAM3="$3"
    
    # ...
}

func1 "V1" "V2" 

#
# function with return value
#
function add() {
    rq "$1" "add *[PARAM1] *PARAM2"
    rq "$2" "add *PARAM1 *[PARAM2]"

    PARAM1="$1"
    PARAM2="$2"

    echo $((PARAM1 + PARAM2))  # No need to use $ for variables inside '(())'! 
}

echo "3 + 6 = $(add "3" "6")"

Samples

Inline Code Block in Background (*)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
{
  for i in $(seq 1 1 5); do
    echo "block = $i"
    sleep 1
  done
} &

for i in $(seq 1 1 5); do
  echo "main = $i"
  sleep 2
done

##
## example from following REF! Note using 'wait' command!
{
    echo "sleeping for 5 seconds"
    sleep 5
    echo "woke up"
} &
echo "waiting"
wait
echo "proceed"

[REF]

Assert Env Var

  • For bash
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    16
    17
    18
    19
    
    E2=b
    
    ENV_VARS="
    E1
    E2
    E3
    "
      
    function assertEnvVars() {
        VARS="$1"
        for VAR in ${VARS}; do              # ITERATE OVER WORDS IN STRING
          echo "${VAR}"
          if [[ ! "${!VAR}" ]]; then        # USING ${!} STRING EXPANSION
            echo "Var Not Defined: ${VAR}"
          fi
        done
    }
      
    assertEnvVars "${ENV_VARS}"  # DOUBLE-QUOTE REQUIRED
    
  • For POSIX sh
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    16
    17
    18
    19
    20
    
    E2=b
      
    ENV_VARS="
    E1
    E2
    E3
    "
      
    assertEnvVars() {                    # No 'function' Keyword!
      VARS="$1"
      for VAR in ${VARS}; do
        echo "${VAR}"
        eval VAR_VAL="\$${VAR}"          # USE 'eval' instead of '${!}'
        if [ ! "${VAR_VAL}" ]; then      # No '[[]]' Support!
          echo "Var Not Defined: ${VAR}"
        fi
      done
    }
      
    assertEnvVars "${ENV_VARS}"  # DOUBLE-QUOTE REQUIRED
    

Command with Proxy

A simple script to set http_proxy env variable in current shell and then executes passed parameters as commands.

Note: replace HOST and PORT with your configuration.

1
2
3
4
5
#! /bin/bash

export http_proxy="http://HOST:PORT"

eval "[email protected]"

Dynamic Music Player

  • In XFCE keyboard layout, for example set ctrl + alt + p to call following script with pop (play or pause) parameter.
  • The player can be parole or smplayer or anything you want.
  • Based on priority and running processes, the script decides to send action to selected player.

Upload to a Docker Registry

My tmux

Usage: mytmux.sh CMD...

  • For a multi-word command, surround it with single or double quote
  • Example: mytmux.sh 'tail -f file1' 'tail -f file2'

Pars Parametric Text File

[REF]

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
# Create a simple text file
#  > means create, >> means create/append
#  it should be double <<
#  EOF means parametric string, while 'EOF' means pure string
#  CR should be after first EOF and before second one
cat > myfile.txt << 'EOF'
Hello "${MSG}"!
'${MSG}' has "$(printf '${MSG}' | wc -m)" chars :-)
EOF

MSG="World"

printf "*** Using 'eval & cat':\n"
eval "cat <<EOF
$(<myfile.txt)
EOF" | cat

printf "\n*** Using 'eval & echo':\n"
eval "echo \"$(<myfile.txt)\"" | cat

printf "\n*** Using 'envsubst':\n"
export MSG
envsubst < myfile.txt | cat

rm -f myfile.txt

Note: | cat in all above is just for simulation of another action on the processed file, so it is rudimentary.

Output is

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
*** Using 'eval & cat':
Hello "World"!
'World' has "6" chars :-)

*** Using 'eval & echo':
Hello World!
'World' has 6 chars :-)

*** Using 'envsubst':
Hello "World"!
'World' has "$(printf 'World' | wc -m)" chars :-)

Iterate over JSON Array

[REF]

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
sample='[{"name":"foo"},{"name":"bar"}]'

for obj in $(echo "${sample}" | jq -r '.[] | @base64'); do
  _jq() {
    echo ${obj} | base64 --decode | jq -r ${1}
  }
  
  echo $(_jq '.name')
done

LVM Partition Smart Expand

Setting the partition name, following script find a block device and extend the associated logical volume.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
P_EXTEND="/var"

if [ "${P_EXTEND}" ]; then
  echo "Extending Partition: ${P_EXTEND}"
  MAP="$(df --output=source ${P_EXTEND}  | sed 1d)"
  VG="$(lvs -o vg_name,lv_path,lv_dmpath --noheadings | grep "${MAP}" | awk '{print $1}')"
  LV="$(lvs -o vg_name,lv_path,lv_dmpath --noheadings | grep "${MAP}" | awk '{print $2}')"
  echo "VG = ${VG}, LV = ${LV}, MAP = ${MAP}"
  B_DEV="$(pvs -a --noheadings | grep -v ${VG} | awk '{print $1}')"
  echo "BLOCK_DEV = ${B_DEV}"
  if [ "${B_DEV}" ]; then
    vgextend ${VG} ${B_DEV}
    lvextend -r -l +100%FREE ${LV}
  fi
fi

Git/Maven Create Next Snapshot

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
#!/bin/bash

if [ ! "$1" ]; then
  echo "Pass next version: $0 VERSION"
  exit 1
fi

if [[ "$1" =~ -SNAPSHOT$ ]]; then
  NEW_VERSION="$1"
else
  NEW_VERSION="$1-SNAPSHOT"
fi

echo "Next snapshot version: $NEW_VERSION"
mvn versions:set -DnewVersion="${NEW_VERSION}" -DgenerateBackupPoms=false

git status --porcelain | awk 'match($2, "pom.xml"){print $2}' | xargs git add

git commit -m "Create Next Snapshot: ${NEW_VERSION}"